Sail Training 2019-11-04T13:47:14+00:00

ISSA – International Sailing Schools Association

 

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Sail Training

Dinghy Junior Levels 1, 2, 3
Keelboat Junior Levels 1, 2, 3
Yacht Crew
Inshore Skipper
Offshore Skipper
Master of Yacht
Windsurfing Levels 1, 2, 3

– Dinghy Levels 1, 2, 3

Experience required prior training: None
Certification required prior training: None
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
Who can do the examination: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
How to submit the application: Only through authorized ISSA school

ISSA Dinghy Skipper Handbook  (Download PDF)

Skills and knowledge required for a Dinghy Level 1

1. Can sail a dinghy, without an instructor, in light winds.
2. Knows the Collision Regulations.
3. Wears appropriate clothing and buoyancy.
4. Can rig, reef, and launch a dinghy.
5. Can balance the boat, a) using body weight b) using the sheet.
6. Can identify reaching, can turn, and ‘slalom’ back to departure point.
7. On a reach, can accelerate and decelerate with the sheet only.
8. Can accelerate and decelerate with the tiller, trimming sails appropriately.
9. Can sail close-hauled, and tack.
10. Running: can balance the boat using the tiller, and can gybe.
11. Can stop the boat on a reach, close-hauled, and from a run.
12. Can prepare for towing.
13. Can recover a capsized dinghy.
14. Can tie a figure of eight knot, and a round turn & two half hitches.
15. Knows about weather forecasts, and sail aerodynamics.

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Dinghy Level 2

1. Can plane a dinghy, in moderate wind and wave conditions.
2. On a run, can maintain a constant angle of heel without body movement, spinnaker (optional) correctly trimmed.
3. Can reach with a constant angle of heel.
4. Can trapeze and hike smoothly.
5. Can stop, reverse 2 boat lengths, and re-start on a pre-determined tack.
6. Can tack and replicate trim and heel.
7. Can gybe reach to reach with spinnaker (optional)
8. Can beat within a corridor.
9. Can tie a bowline and heat seal rope ends.
10. Can recover an inverted dinghy.
11. Can release a trapeze harness
12. Can reduce sail afloat.
13. Can interpret weather forecasts.
14. Knows about, points of sailing, buoyage, lee shores, tides, overhead power lines, anchors, boat maintenance.
15. Plus level 1 criteria

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Dinghy Level 3

1. Can plane a dinghy in strong wind conditions.
2. Can tune a dinghy, centreboard, mast rake, vang, Cunningham, outhaul, barber haulers.
3. Can roll tack and gybe
4. Can sail backwards.
5. Can sail without a rudder.
6. Can detect wind shifts.
7. Can mark round accurately.
8. Able to start at correct end of line.
9. Can cover and lee bow another dinghy
10. Can determine local weather patterns and wind strategy.
11. Knows Sailing Instructions, and the Racing Rules of Sailing.
12. Plus levels 1 & 2 criteria

 

– Keelboat Levels 1, 2, 3

Experience required prior training: None
Certification required prior training: None
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
Who can do the examination: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
How to submit the application: Only through authorized ISSA school

Skills and knowledge required for a Keelboat Level 1

1. Can sail a keelboat under instruction, in light winds, respecting the collision regulations, and paying attention to balance and trim.
2. Wears appropriate clothing and buoyancy.
3. Can rig and reef a keelboat.
4. Can identify reaching, can turn, and slalom back to departure point.
5. Can use a winch and trim sails on all points of sailing.
6. Can sail close hauled, and tack.
7. Can run, and gybe.
8. Can stop the boat on a reach, close-hauled, and from a run.
9. Can pick up a mooring.
10. Can sail alongside a jetty.
11. Can anchor.
12. Can prepare for towing.
13. Can tie a figure of eight knot and a bowline.
14. Knows; sources of weather forecasts, and sail aerodynamics.
15. Understands the importance of the crew working as a team.
16. Knows the procedure for man overboard.

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Keelboat Level 2

1. Can sail a keelboat in moderate winds.
2. Knows about keelboat rigs and equipment.
3. Can sail a compass course.
4. Knows the Collision Regulations
5. Knows about sources of pilotage information, and how to use them.
6. Can gybe reach to reach with spinnaker (optional)
7. Can beat within a corridor.
8. Can tie a bowline and heat seal rope ends.
9. Can reef afloat.
10. Can interpret weather forecasts.
11. Knows about, points of sailing, buoyage, lee shores, overhead power lines, anchors, boat maintenance.
12. Knows about tides, sources of information and how to calculate local tides.
13. Is aware of emergency procedures and First Aid afloat
14. Plus level 1 criteria

 

 

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Keelboat Level 3

1.Can sail a keelboat in strong winds.
2.Competent at man overboard procedure.
3.Can demonstrate crew organisation, to perfect manoeuvres.
4.Can detect wind shifts.
5.Can equip and maintain a keelboat.
6.Knows what to do in the event of a stranding.
7.Can plan a passage.
8.Can demonstrate an alternative means of propulsion.
9.Can mark round accurately
10.Is able to start at the correct end of the line
11.Can cover and lee bow another keelboat
12.Can determine local weather patterns and wind strategy
13.Knows Sailing Instructions and the Racing Rules of Sailing.
14.Plus levels 1 & 2 criteria

 

 

– Yacht Crew

Experience required prior training: None
Certification required prior training: None
Minimum age required: 10 years old
Suggested number of training hours: 20 hours (minimum 3 days)
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
Who can do the examination: ISSA Instructor or minimum Offshore Skipper
How to submit the application: Only through authorized ISSA school

ISSA Yacht Crew – Student Handbook (Download PDF)

Skills and knowledge required for a Yacht Crew

Yacht’s construction

1. Knows the basic parts of yacht and what are they designed for:
a. Cockpit
b. Bildge
c. Heads
d. Galley
e. Bow
f. Stern, aft etc.
g. Boom
h. Mast
i. Rigging
j. Haulyards

2. Can operate elementary yacht’s systems:
a. Toilet
b. Gass oven
c. Sink
d. Shower

3. Can fill up the water and diesel tanks

4. Can operate the inboard engine
a. Start it
b. Switch it off
c. Check whether cooling system works
d. Inspection before starting

Line and spring handling

1. Can combine two lines of the same and different diameter
2. Can make:
a. Bowline
b. Fast a line on a cleat
c. Fishermen’s bend
d. Coil mooring lines

3. Can:
a. Hand over
b. Take
c. Make fast on cleat
d. Let go mooring lines

4. Can describe different ways of taking a mooring.

Handling sail sheets and haulyards

1. Can:
a. Set and bring down the sails
b. Reef down and shake off the reefs

Handling fenders

1. Can:
a. Fix them by applying adequate knots
b. effectively operate the manouvering fender

Operating the anchor.

1. Can:
a. Prepare anchor for weighing (switches and controls)
b. Operate the windlass (letting out and taking in the chain)

Operating the dinghy.

1. Can:
a. Take the dinghy off the deck and pull it in onto the deck
b. Secure the dinghy to the yacht
c. Use paddles effectively
d. Secure the dinghy to the deck

Safety.

1. Can:
a. Safely move arround the deck
b. Use the safety equipement
c. Use the distress singalling equipment (pirotechnics, mirror, flags etc.)
d. Use the fire fighting equipment (fire extinguishers – with consideration of various types available, fire

blanket)
e. Apply various methods to make a distress signal (at least 4 methods)

Other skills

1. Can:
a. Keep observation of the sailing area and pass over information about the direction and distance to objects
b. Knows the lights of their own yacht in the night
c. Make adequate signals in fog
d. Effectively hold the helm

 

 

– Inshore Skipper

Experience required prior training: At least 1 sailing cruise
Certification required prior training: None
Minimum age required: 16 years old
Suggested number of training hours: 50 hours
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor
Who can do the examination: ISSA Instructor
How to submit the application: To authorized ISSA school only

ISSA Inshore Skipper – Student Textbook (Download PDF)

Scope of required knowledge and skills (Inshore Skipper)

Yacht’s construction

1. Knows the basic parts of yacht and what are they designed for:
a. Cockpit
b. Bildge
c. Heads
d. Galley
e. Bow
f. Stern, aft etc.
g. Boom
h. Mast
i. Rigging
j. Haulyards

2. Can operate elementary yacht’s systems:
a. Toilet
b. Gass oven
c. Sink
d. Shower

3. Can fill up the water and diesel tanks

4. Can operate the inboard engine
a. Start it
b. Switch it off
c. Check whether cooling system works
d. Inspection before starting
e. Top up engine oil
f. Check cooling fluid level
g. Top up cooling fuel level
h. Control the tension of V-belt on engine
i. Find bottom valves
j. Recognize the breakdown of impeller in cooling system and possibly replace it
k. Check whether alternator is charging batteries when engine is working.

5. Knows elementary yacht equipment
a. Boom
b. Mast (with various methods of sail reefing)
c. Rigging
d. Haulyards
e. Echosounder (location, operation, typical errors);
f. Log
g. Steering system
h. Keel

Can name the points of sail in relation to wind

Operating sail sheets and haulyards

1. Can:
a. Manage crew to set and bring down the sails
b. Manage the crew to reef down and shake off the reefs
c. Adjust sails depending on the point of sails
d. Make a tack
e. Make a gybe

Line and spring handling

1. Can combine two lines of the same and different diameter
2. Can make:
a. Bowline
b. Fast a line on a cleat
c. Fishermen’s bend
d. Coil mooring lines
3. Can:
a. Pass, take, make fast on cleat, let go mooring lines
b. Throw mooring lines
c. Describe different ways of taking a mooring

Handling fenders

1. Can:
a. Fix them by applying adequate knots
b. effectively operate the manouvering fender

Operating the anchor

1. Can:
a. Prepare anchor for weighing (switches and controls)
b. Operate the windlass (control the letting out and pulling in the chain)
c. Select safe location for staying at anchor
d. Apply rules for safe anchoring (4xdepth, anchor alarm/watch)
e. Distinguish different types of anchors and their characteristics

Handling the dinghy

1. Can:
a. Take the dinghy off the deck and pull it in onto the deck
b. Secure the dinghy to the yacht
c. Paddle
d. Secure the dinghy to the yacht deck
e. Install the outboard engine on the yacht (for storage) and on the dinghy (for work)
f. Connect the fuel system to the outboard engine
g. Start and switch off the outboard engine

Safety

1. Can perform the safety briefing under the deck:
a. Gas system
b. Toilet operation
c. Fire fighting equipment
d. Water supply system
e. Electric system

 

2. Can perform the safety briefing on deck:
a. How to move on deck
b. How to apply personnal safety equipment (harness, jackstay, etc.)
c. Apply distress singalling equipment (pirotechnics, flags, etc.)
d. Liferaft
e. Different methods to send distress signal
f. Make a distress call with help of VHF
g. Knows procedures to be applied in restricted visibility
h. Basic knowledge about SAR procedures (RIB, helicopter)
i. First Aid Kit (location and content)

Handling yacht under Power

1. Can:
a. Manouver a yacht under power
b. Approach a MOB
c. Take a berth/leave a berth (longside, stern-to, bow-to)
d. Weigh anchor

Yacht handling under sails

1. Can:
a. Heave-to
b. Approach MOB – as emergency manouver
c. Approach a bouy/ weigh anchor – as emergency manouver

International Rules for Preventing Collisions at Sea

1. Knows the navigation shapes and lights:
a. Vessel not under command
b. Vessel restricted in ability to manouver
c. Vessel engaged in fishing
d. Vessel aground
e. Pilot vessel
f. Towing set
g. Sailing yacht
h. Power driven vessel
2. Knows the vessels’ priority at sea
3. Knows how to proceed in a „close encounter” situation
4. Is familiar and complies with the requiremet for continues observation
5. Is familiar with other legal obligations of a skipper and crew
6. Is familiar with and understands after-collission rules applicable at sea

Navigational Aids

1. Knows, understands and is able to recognize latteral and smaller channel marks at day time in system IALA A and B
2. Knows, understands and is able to recognize cardinal marks and other navigational marks (safe water mark, isolated danger mark) at day time
3. Is able to use the list of marks and symbols used on charts (eg. Chart 5011)
4. Is able to apply navigational publications when planning a port’s entry (pilot books, almanachs, navigational plans)
5. Knows and can recognize light characteristics of Lighthouses/navigational marks

Terrestrial navigation

1. Knows and understands the basic terms from geography:
a. Latitude
b. Longitude
c. Magnetic pole
d. Gegraphic pole
e. Earth’s magnetic field
2. Knows the basic types of sea charts, their construction and application:
a. Mercator’s projection chart (how is it constructed, spreading of parallels, construction parallel)
b. Passage charts, coastal charts, plans
3. Can read elementary information from a chart that is crutial for safe sailing:
a. Depths
b. Distance
c. Navigational obstacles
d. Navigational marks
4. Can read charts/ plot latitude and longitude
5. Knows and understands the phenomenon of Earth’s magnetism, variation and deviation
6. Can use a compass
7. Can calculate, set, read and plot courses on a chart with respect of variation, deviation and leeway
8. Can plot yacht’s position using bearing lines
9. Can plot yacht’s position using the maintained course, distance ran and estimated leeway
10. Can make use of various bearing lines
11. Has general information about tides and tide-related dangers

Eletronic-based navigation

1. Knows how the GPS system works.
2. Can enable and check the elementary settings of GPS and plotter.
3. Can set and read adequate course on GPS.
4. Can plot a position on a chart taken from a GPS.
5. Knows what is AIS, ARPA, VTS.

Meteorology

1. Knows the Beaufort scale and its meaning for small craft.
2. Knows sources of meteo information and how to use them.
3. Has the basic knowledge about high, low pressure areas, fronts.
4. Can recognize cumulonimbus clouds.
5. Understands meteo messages (including those broadcast by radio coastal stations).
6. Can take meteo factors into consideration when planning a passage in a coastal zone.
7. Has the habit not to leave harbour without valid weather forecast.

Other

1. Environmental friendly approach and respect to other yachtsmen.
2. Knows and applies basic pro-environmental rules.
3. Knows and applies social friendly approach at sea and in harbour.

– Offshore Skipper

Experience required prior training: 28 days at sea as skipper or watch leader in at least 2 voyages, at least in 2 sea areas
Certification required prior training: SRC and First Aid Certificate
Minimum age required: 18 years old
Suggested number of training hours: 40 hours
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor
Who can do the examination: ISSA Instructor
Examination: 6 hours, including 2 at darkeness. Maximum 3 candidates at a time
How to sibmit the application: To authorized ISSA school only

Scope of required knowledge and skills (Offshore Skipper)

Yacht handling under Power

1. Unberthing/berthing (longside and stern-to)
2. Approaching a mooring buoy
3. Weighing an anchor
4. Recovery of Man Over Board
5. Practical skills

Yacht handling under sails

1. Tacking
2. Gybing
3. Recovery of Man Over Board
4. Practical skills

Dead Reckoning Navigation

1. Definition of DR navigation
2. Running of DR and plotting of DR position
3. Practical skills

Fixing lines

1. Sources of fixing lines (leading lights, bearings, depth contour)
2. Error analysis/ accuracy assessment
3. Practical skills

Magnetic compass

1. Consideration of variation. Change of variation in time and place
2. Siting of compass and reasons for deviation (impact of electronic devices)
3. Consideration of deviation
4. Stationary and handbearing compasses
5. Determination of deviation

Tides

1. Reasons of Tides – Springs and Neaps
2. Tidal Tables
3. Tidal levels and chart datum
4. Time and height of tide in standard ports
5. Secondary ports
6. Anomalies

Tidal currents

1. Tidal current atlases
2. Tidal current diamonds
3. Information about tidal currents in navigation publications
4. Consideration of tidal currents when calculating courses and passage planning
5. Overfalls, tidal races

Buoys and Beacons

1. Navigation marks in IALA A and B
2. Limitation of navigational marks as navigational aid

Lights

1. Characteristics
2. Range – visual and nominal
3. List of lights

Pilotage

1. Harbour specific regulations and signalling systems
2. Planning and strategy to enter/leave a harbour
3. Practical skills to make a pilotage

Echo sounders

1. Operation of manual echosounder
2. Types of echosounders
3. Limitations of echosounders
4. Secondary echoes

Satellite systems

Basic knowledge of satellite systems, their abilities and limitations

Logs (measurement of speed and distance)

Different types and operation

Logbook

1. Logbook as an official document
2. Running of a logbook

Meteorology

1. Basic terms, Beaufort’s scale
2. Air masses
3. Types of clouds
4. Characteristics of weather in specific pressure and front systems
5. Sources of weather forecasts
6. Ability to interpret weather forecasts/ charts, weatherfax
7. Day/night breeze
8. Fog
9. Use of barometer

Anchoring

1. Types of anchors and operation
2. Selection of place to anchor

Collision Regulations

Good knowledge of International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

Safety at sea

1. Personal safety, use of lifejackets, harnesses, jackstays
2. Fire prevention and fighting
3. Distress signals
4. Role of coastguard
5. Preparation to heavy weather
6. Liferafts and recovery by helicopter

International Signalling Code

Rules of application

Navigating in restricted visibility

1. Restricted visibility procedures
2. Limitations for safe navigation

Passage planning

1. Preparation of charts and notes to plan a passage
2. Standard actions when navigating in inshore waters
3. Strategy to plan a passage
4. Use of weather information in passage planning
5. Sources of local and national regulations

Environment protection

Responsibility for environment pollution and sea environment protection

– Master of Yacht

Experience required prior training: 60 days at sea as skipper or watch leader in at least 5 voyages, at least in 3 different sea areas, including tidal waters (at least one area), 2 passages over 100 nautical miles as skipper
Certification required prior training: SRC, First Aid Certificate, Sea Survival
Minimum age required: 18 years old
Suggested number of training hours: 40 hours – training covers more exam preparation
Who can run the training: ISSA Instructor who holds MoY certificate
Who can do the examination: ISSA Examiner
Examination: 6 hours, including 2 at darkeness Maximum 3 candidates at a time
How to submit the application: To authorized ISSA school only

Scope of required knowledge and skills (Master of Yacht)

Candidate for Master of Yacht should possess the same knowledge as Offshore Skipper but should be more fluent in applying it.

Apart of that, Master of Yacht should:

  • have proper appearance (dressing and hygiene) and should behave properly (show respect to others)
  • be condifent in his actions;
  • be friendly to his crew;
  • remain calm in all situations and should not escalate stressful situations;
  • have good communication skills with the crew;

Windsurfing Levels 1, 2, 3

Experience required prior training: None

Certification required prior training: None

Who can run the training: ISSA Windsurfing Instructor

Who can do the examination: ISSA Windsurfing Instructor

How to submit the application: Only through authorized ISSA school

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Windsurf Level 1,2,3

Skills and knowledge required for a Windsurf Level 1

  1. Can windsurf in light winds, respecting the Collision Regulations.
  2. Wears a wetsuit and buoyancy aid.
  3. Can rig and launch a windsurfer.
  4. Can hold the rig clear of the water, board at right angles to mast.
  5. Can turn the board 360 degrees in both directions.
  6. Can reach, tack, and return to starting point
  7. Can sail upwind
  8. Can sail downwind and gybe
  9. Can self-rescue.
  10. Knows about weather forecasts and tides.

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Windsurf Level 2

  1. Can windsurf in moderate wind and wave conditions.
  2. Can use a harness
  3. On a run, is aware of wind shifts and adjusts direction and fore-and-aft trim to maintain optimal speed.
  4. Can stop reverse and re-start with the sail out of the water.
  5. Can reach, foot steering, (rig angle constant)
  6. Can beach start
  7. Can flare gybe
  8. Can interpret weather forecasts and assess wind & waves.
  9. Knows about equipment, safety, and sail aerodynamics.
  10. Plus level 1 criteria

 

Skills and knowledge required for a Windsurf Level 3

  1. Can windsurf in strong wind conditions.
  2. Can use trim, and balance, to reach optimal speed.
  3. Can tack and gybe maintaining speed
  4. Can water start
  5. Can detect and use wind shifts.
  6. Can mark round accurately.
  7. Is able to start at the correct end of the line
  8. Can determine local weather conditions and wind strategy
  9. Knows Sailing Instructions and the Racing Rules of Sailing
  10. Plus levels 1 & 2 criteria

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